Corporate criminal liability using UNCITRAL arbitration framework development for EPC disclosure concerning epistemic corruption and pharmaceutical fraud of off-label medicines as health regulation and policy
Corporate Governance is a conceptual framework of business designs intended to illustrate the various activities of a company towards fulfilling its profit goals as private stakeholder and contributing to public interests for social obligation of sustainable development. Disclosure of corporate social responsibility is the central mechanism of corporate governance. Based on stakeholder theory, corporate governance strongly influences corporate social responsibility disclosure to enhance the relationship of stakeholders and its business community. Tax aggressiveness is utilized by board director and its members to lessen tax contribution which is contrary to the government sector goals of maximizing tax impositions for public welfare and safety. Unlawful behavior on tax aggressiveness is known as tax evasion while tax avoidance is not a violation and serves as a loophole to the taxation system, although corporate fraud is apparent in off-label medicines. UNCITRAL model law is a legal arbitration concept of making “commercial” expand to other comparable jurisdiction of international trade. The European Patent Commission is the legal authority that delineates medical policies from patented products. This paper aims to develop arbitration framework based on stakeholder theory of corporate governance to separate tax evasion from tax avoidance as organized crime sourcing treatment of policies and engineer tax planning to divide intellectual property of product design with corporate fraud concerning off-label medicines. Therefore, tax evasion and corporate fraud are business crimes in pharmaceutical industries needed to be clearly managed by institutional healthcare companies for promoting economic success.
Zharama Llarena. Corporate criminal liability using UNCITRAL arbitration framework development for EPC disclosure concerning epistemic corruption and pharmaceutical fraud of off-label medicines as health regulation and policy. International Journal of Law, Volume 8, Issue 6, 2022, Pages 102-106