Expanding scope of article 12 of the constitution of India and recent developments
Dr. Mita Poddar
The concept of State has been discussed by many political thinkers and defined in different ways under various literatures. This article discusses about the scope of the definition of the State under article 12 of the Constitution of India. The scope of article 12 has been expanded through judicial decisions from time to time. The term other authorities has been widely interpreted by the judiciary in a number of cases. The discussion also includes the recent developments and the role of judiciary in this field. In this paper it is mentioned that how the fundamental rights are protected through judicial activism. It is important to note that any company or institution and cooperative societies may also be included within article 12 if they satisfy the test of agency or instrumentality of the State.